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Miranda Risang Ayu – Geographical Indications Protection In Indonesia (2009)

Rp 200.000,00 Rp 198.000,00

Penulis: Miranda Risang Ayu
Penerbit: Nagara Institute
Edisi: April 2009
Tebal: 408 halaman
ISBN: 978-979-1436-17-5
Produksi: Hardcover – Limited Edition

Stok 7

SKU: BU_22 Kategori: , Label , ,

Keterangan

Geograpichal Indication is a type of Intelectual Property Right which consist of a trade name on a product that identifies a geographical origin, and perticularly, a special character resulted from the origin, that makes a product distinctive.

This research is started by exploring several aspects which can influence the establishment of the legal means in national levels; the international laws, the variations of legal means in a number of selected countries, and the current development of Geographical Indication in every South Easth Asian countries.

It is than focused on the Indonesian legal protection for Geographical Indications. This research contributes four optional models of legal means to protect Geographical Indication in the national levels hich can be applicable for Indonesia and other TRIPS member countries. This research will also propose the best legal means, including all important aspects, to develop a solid protection for Geographical Indication in Indonesia.

* * * *

Miranda Risang Ayu was born on August, 10, 1968, in Bandung, Indonesia. She finished her undergraduate (SH) in the Faculty of Law, University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia (1987-1993). Under the Australian developmant Scholarships, she followed a Master of Laws (LLM) program in 2002 and a Doctor of Philosopy in Laws (PhD) Program between 2004-2007 in the Faculty of Law, University of Technology Sydney, Australia. Now, she is a law lecturer and head of Intelectual Property Rights Office in the University of Padjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

List of Tables and Charts » 16
List of Maps » 17
List of Pictures » 18
Abstract » 21

CHAPTER I

Introduction » 24
Background » 24
Geographical Indications in the TRIPS Agreement » 25
Geographical Indications in Other International Conventions » 27
Protectable Elements » 30
Geographical Indications Protection in Developed Countries » 33
Geographical Indications Protection in South East Asian Countries » 33
Geographical Indications Implementation Problem in Indonesia » 35
Traditional Knowledge Protection Problems » 37
The Cultural Rights Based Approach » 37
The Advantages of Using Cultural Rights Based Approach in Indonesia » 37
Research Questions » 38
Aims and Objectives » 39
Output » 39
Hypotheses » 39
Methodology » 40
Types of Data » 40
Methods of Data Collection » 40
Library and On-Line Research » 40
Field Research » 40
Areas of Data Collection » 41
Institutional Data Areas » 41
Market Polling Areas » 41
Focus Group Discussions or Individual Interviews » 41
Methods of Data Analysis » 43

CHAPTER II

Geographical Indications Protection in the Context of International Law » 46
Geographical Indications in the TRIPS Agreement of 1995 » 46
The Brief History of TRIPS Agreement of 1995 » 46
The International Trade Organization » 48
The Birth of the TRIPS Agreement » 49
Geographical Indications in the TRIPS Agreement » 52
Geographical Indications as the TRIPS In-Built Agenda in the WTO Ministerial Conferences » 59
Geographical Indications in Other International Conventions » 61
The Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property 1883 » 61
The Madrid Agreement, 1891 and The Madrid Protocol concerning the International Registration of Marks, 1989 » 64
The Madrid Agreement, 1891 for the Repression of False or Deceptive Indications of Source on Goods » 65
The Lisbon Agreement for the Protection of Appellations of Origin and Their International Registration, 1958 » 66
The Stresa Convention for the Use of Appellation of Origin and Denomination of Cheeses, 1951 » 68
Legal Concepts related to Geographical Indications in International Conventions » 68
A Comparison between the Concepts of Geographical Indications, Appellation of Origins, Designation of Origins and Indication of Source » 68
Geographical Indications » 70
Appellation of Origins » 72
Designation of Origins » 74
Indication of Source » 76
Legal Concepts in Trade Mark Law and Practice concerning Geographical Indications » 78
Collective Marks » 9
Certification Marks » 9
Legal Concept of Anti Unfair Competition concerning Geographical Indications » 79
The Common Law’s Tort of Passing-Off » 80
The Extension of the Meaning of Producers and Public of a Geographical Indication » 82
The Extension of the Passing-Off Concept » 84
Protectable Elements in Geographical Indications » 85
The Meaning of ‘Indications which Identify a Good’ » 86
The Meaning of ‘a Good’ » 87
The Meaning of ‘Originating in the Territory of a Member, or a Region or Locality in that Territory’ » 88
The Meaning of ‘Quality, Reputation or Other
Characteristic’ » 89
The Meaning of ‘Essentially Attributable to Its Geographical Origin’ » 90

CHAPTER III

Geographical Indications in Europe, The United States of America, Australia and India » 94
Geographical Indications Protection in the European Community » 95
The Legal Bases of Geographical Indication Protection in the European Community » 95
The European Union Regulation (EEC) Number 2081, 1992 » 97
The European Union Regulation (EEC) Number 510, 2006 » 99
The Importance of the ‘Turron’ Decision » 100
Geographical Indications in France » 101
Appellation of Origins in France » 101
Geographical Indications in France » 102
Indication of Source in France » 103
Geographical Indications Protection in the United States of America » 104
Certification Marks under the United States Trade Mark Act,1946 » 105
Ownership » 107
Wines and Spirits Protection under The United States Trade Marks Act 1946 and The United States Regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) » 108
Homonymous Geographical Indications » 109
Geographical Indication Protection in the United States Common Law Protection System » 110
Law Enforcement for Geographical Indications in the United States Trade Mark Counterfeiting Act, 1984 » 110
Geographical Indications Protection System in Australia » 110
Australian Membership in International Conventions in respect to Geographical Indications » 111
The TRIPS Agreement, 1994 » 112
Australia in accordance with Bilateral Agreements regarding Geographical Indications Protection » 112
Bilateral Agreement between Australia and The European Union, 1994 » 112
Australia and New Zealand Cooperation Concerning Food Authority Labelling and Advertising Standard » 114
Australian National Protection System for Geographical Indications » 114
The Australian Trade Practice Act, 1974 (Cth) » 114
The Australian Wine and Brandy Corporation Act, 1980 and the Australian Food Standards Code Spirit Standard » 115
Geographical Indication Protection in the Australian Trade Mark Act, 1995 (Cth) » 116
The Categorization System of Geographical Indications on Goods in regard with the Nice Agreement » 118
Geographical Indications in India » 119

CHAPTER IV

Geographical Indications in South East Asian Countries » 128
Geographical Indications in Singapore » 128
Geographical Indications in the Philippines » 130
Geographical Indications in Malaysia » 136
Geographical Indications in Brunei Darussalam » 139
Geographical Indications in Thailand » 140
Geographical Indications in Cambodia » 141
Geographical Indications in Lao People Democratic Republic » 147
Geographical Indications in Myanmar » 150
Geographical Indications in Vietnam » 152
Vietnam’s Basic Laws in Protecting Geographical Indications » 153
The Civil Code of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam » 153
The Government Decree Number 63/CP of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam » 155
The Government Decree Number 12/1999/ND-CP of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam » 156
The Government Decree Number 54/2000/ND-CP of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam » 158

CHAPTER V

Geographical Indications Protection in Indonesia » 164
The History of Geographical Indications Protection in Indonesia » 164
Tort in the Republic of Indonesian Civil Code » 165
The Republic of Indonesian Law Number 5, 1999 in relation to Antimonopoly and Unfair Competition » 167
The Republic of Indonesian Consumer Protection Law Number 8, 1999 » 168
The Republic of Indonesian Trade Marks Law Number 15, 2001 » 168
The Bills of Government Regulation concerning the Procedures for Geographical Indication Registration » 173
The First Bill » 173
The Second Bill » 176
The Government Regulation Number 51 Year 2007 of the President of the Republic of Indonesia concerning Geographical Indication » 177

CHAPTER VI

The Advantage of Geographical Indications for Traditional Knowledge » 188
Traditional Knowledge Protection Problems » 188
Definition of Indigenous People and Their Cultural Expression » 189
Problems of Traditional Knowledge Protection » 192
Form » 192
Originality » 192
Ownership » 194
Duration of Protection » 195
Protection of Spiritual Values » 196
Several Efforts to Solve this Problem » 198

CHAPTER VII

The Connection between Intellectual Property Rig hts and Cultural Rig hts » 202
Cultural Rights in International Laws » 202
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), 1948 » 207
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) » 207
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) » 207
The Declaration on the Rights of Development 1986 » 207
The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) » 208
The International Labour Organization Convention Number 169 » 208
The Draft Declaration on Indigenous Rights » 208
The Historical Context of Cultural Rights and Intellectual Property Rights » 209
Examples of Cultural and Intellectual Property Rights Cases » 210
The Case of a Patent Right of a Plant Variety as well as a Cultural Right of Traditional Community in Amazon » 210
The Copyright Case and Cultural Right Case of a Group of Australian Aboriginal Painters » 211
The Geographical Indication Case and Cultural Right Case of Haryana Traditional Farmer » 213
Comparing Cultural Rights and Intellectual Property Rights » 214
The Concept of ‘Severe Impact’ in the Lack of Cultural Right Fulfilment » 215
The Positive Values to connect Cultural Rights with Intellectual Property Rights » 216

CHAPTER VIII

A Cultural Rig hts Based Approach » 220
Rights Based Approach » 220
Universality, Non-Discrimination and Equality Principle » 221
Indivisibility or Interdependence Principle » 221
Accountability » 221
Participation » 221
The Rule of Law » 222
The Progressive Realization Principle » 222
A Cultural Rights-Based Approach » 223
Modified Rapid Rural Appraisal » 225
General Methodology » 227
Types of Data » 227
Method of Data Collection » 228
Library and On-Line Research » 228
Field Research » 228
Areas of Data Collection » 229
Institutional Data Areas » 229
Market Polling Areas » 229
Focus Group Discussions or Individual Interviews » 229
Methods of Data Analysis » 230
Detailed Methodology » 230
Participants » 232
Justifications for These Amounts » 322
Area of Focus Group » 234
The Number of Participants for the Focus Groups » 235
Selection and Exclusion Criteria for Participants » 235
Procedures » 236
Length of Time » 238
Places of Research » 239

CHAPTER IX

Field Research Results in Indonesia » 241
Market Polling » 241
Hero Supermarket » 242
Matahari Supermarket » 242
Total responses from Hero and Matahari Supermarkets » 244
Total Responses in Percentage » 244
Focus Group Discussion and Individual Interviews » 244
Sumbanese Woven Clothes » 245
Traditional Values » 246
The Existence of a Producer Association » 250
The Existence of a Traditional Community Leader » 251
The Map of Sumba Island » 253
Traditional Technology Know-How » 255
Kalimantan Timber » 258
The History of the Products » 260
The Existence of a Traditional Community Leader » 264
The Map of the Area » 268
Traditional Technology Know-How » 268
Pekalongan Batik » 273
The History and Special Character of the Products » 275
The Existence of Producer Associations » 279
The Map of Pekalongan City of Batik » 281
Traditional Technology Know-How » 281
Cilembu Sweet Potatoes » 286
The History of the Product » 288
The Existence of a Producer Association » 290
The Map of the Area » 293
Traditional Technology Know-How » 294
Borobudur Replicas » 296
The History of the Product » 298
The Existence of a Producer Association » 301
The Existence of a Spiritual Community Leader » 302
The Map of the Area » 306
Traditional Technology Know-How » 307
Ubud Painting Style » 309
The History of the Product » 310
The Kamasan Style » 314
The Batuan Style » 314
The Young Artists of Bali Style » 315
The Ubud Style » 315
The Existence of an Association » 316
The Map of the Area » 317
Traditional Technology Know-How » 318
Cakalang Fish » 319
The History of the Product » 320
The Existence of a Producer Association » 322
The Map of the Area » 324
Traditional Technology Know-How » 324
CHAPTER X
Field Research Results in Australia » 330
Goulburn Roses » 330
The History of the Product » 334
The Existence of a Producer Association » 335
The Map of the Area » 336
Traditional Technology Know-How » 337
Coonawarra Wine » 338
The History of the Product » 338
The Existence of a Producer Association » 342
The Map of the Area » 344
Traditional Technology Know-How » 345

CHAPTER XI

Discussion » 350
Scope of Geographical Indications, Indication of Sources and Appellation of Origins » 350
International Conventions related to Geographical Indications » 356
Controversy on the Protectable Elements of Geographical Indication » 361
Modes of Legal Means to Implement Geographical Indications » 363
Protection in the National Levels » 361
Inclusive-General Mode » 361
Inclusive Specific Mode » 363
Exclusive Level Mode » 364
Exclusive Non-Level Mode » 365
Different Legal Means in Selected Countries » 366
The United States of America » 366
The European Community » 367
France » 369
Australia » 370
India » 371
Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand and Cambodia » 371
Singapore » 371
Malaysia » 372
Thailand » 373
Cambodia » 373
The Philippines and Brunei Darussalam » 374
The Philippines » 374
Brunei Darussalam » 374
The Republic of Socialist Vietnam » 375
Laos People Democratic Republic and Myanmar » 9
Laos » 376
Myanmar » 377
Indonesia » 377
The Proposed Character of Indonesian Legal Means to Protect Geographical Indications » 377
TRIPS Obligations and the Cultural and Legal Diversity in the South East Asian Countries » 377
Principles in the Republic of Indonesian 1945 Constitution and the Republic of Indonesian Law Number 11, 2005 concerning the Ratification of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights » 380
Contribution of Qualitative Field Research in the Indonesian Selected Areas » 382
Inputs Generated from Qualitative Research in Indonesian Selected Areas » 384
Analysis of the Field Research Results in Indonesia » 384
National Reputation » 386
History » 388
Producers Associations » 389
Community Leaders » 390
Clustered Areas » 391
Cilembu Sweet Potato Clustered Area of Production » 391
Cakalang Fish Clustered Area of Production » 392
Pekalongan Batik Clustered Area of Production » 392
Ubud Painting Style Clustered Area of Production » 394
Borobudur Replicas Clustered Area of Production » 393
Kalimantan Timber Clustered Area of Production » 394
Sumbanese Woven Clothes Clustered Area of Production » 394
Traditional Know-How » 395
The Possibility of Protections » 395
Inputs from Qualitative Field Research in the Australian Selected Areas » 396
The Principles of Geographical Indication Protection in Indonesia » 396
Critical Review on the Existing Geographical Indications Protection System in Indonesia » 397

CHAPTER XI

Conclusions and Recommendations » 404
Conclusions » 404
Recommendations » 405

Bibliography » 406

Additional Information

Weight 0.8 kg